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The Long-Eared Owl (Asio otus) is a species of owl found in much of the Northern Hemisphere. It inhabits open forests, grasslands and meadows with plenty of trees for roosting and nesting sites. A distinctively marked bird, it has long ear tufts that reach far above its head, giving this species its name. The Long-Eared Owl also has yellow eyes, white eyebrows and mottled brown plumage on its back.

This article seeks to provide an overview of the biology and natural history of the Long-Eared Owl. In particular, it will focus on habitat requirements, threats to the species’ populations and potential conservation measures to protect them from further decline. Furthermore, this article will discuss how human activities can influence the survival of this fascinating creature.

By providing an understanding of their ecology and current status, we hope to create awareness about the importance of conserving these remarkable birds for future generations to appreciate.

Long-eared owl


The Long-Eared Owl is a nocturnal bird of prey which belongs to the owl family and is classified as an aurous species. This feathered creature has long ear tufts, yellow eyes, mottled brown plumage with white spots and barred tail feathers. The average length of this owl ranges from 41–50 cm, making it one of the larger owls in Europe.

Long-eared Owls inhabit various habitats including deciduous forests, coniferous woodlands, grassland meadows and agricultural areas near human settlements. They prefer open woodland or wetland edges as well as marshy areas for nesting. These birds primarily feed on small mammals such as mice but also eat smaller birds, amphibians and insects.

In recent decades the Long-Eared Owl population has been declining due to habitat loss and degradation caused by human activities. For example, deforestation results in fewer suitable nest sites while increased light pollution affects their ability to hunt effectively at night.

Despite these challenges they still remain widespread throughout much of Eurasia and North America where conservation efforts are being made to protect them from further decline.

Species Identification

The presence of the long-eared owl can be easily identified by its distinct features and visual characteristics. Species identification is a key component in understanding this species’ ecology, distribution, and protection status.

The following are some distinctive features that allow for visual identification:

  • Size: The Long-Eared Owl has an average wingspan of around 3 feet, making it one of the larger owls in North America.
  • Color Patterns: The feathers on their upper body are mottled grayish-brown with darker streaks along its back while the lower parts are mostly white. Typically, they have dark eyes which contrast nicely against their lighter facial disc.
  • Ear Tufts: This species boasts two feathered “ear tufts” located near the top of its head which give them their name.
  • Flight Pattern: At times these birds will soar gracefully on flat or slightly undulating wings instead of flapping like other owls do when flying.
  • Calls: Their call consists of hoots similar to those made by great horned owls however; they are not as deep sounding and can oftentimes sound more like screeching than hooting.

When out in nature, distinguishing between different bird species from afar can be difficult; however, learning the unique physical attributes associated with each species makes it easier to make positive identifications even at a distance.

Knowing what to look for ensures accurate field observations are collected about potential habitats where long-eared owls may reside allowing conservationists and biologists to better understand how best to protect them now and into the future.

Habitat And Distribution

The long-eared owl is found across much of the Northern Hemisphere, with a habitat range stretching from Europe to North America and parts of Asia. Its distribution area consists primarily of temperate regions such as forests, woodlands, grasslands, swamps and wetlands.

In wintertime they migrate southward in search of more hospitable climates; during this period they roost in dense shrubbery or coniferous trees near their nesting locations. Migration patterns vary depending on the latitude; some individuals will travel thousands of miles while others may remain within the same region year round.

When looking for suitable habitats for breeding, these owls prefer open areas with plenty of tall vegetation for concealment. They also require well-drained soils that are not too wet nor too dry.

Preferred nesting sites include cavities in old trees or wall crevices but when necessary manmade structures can also be used. Roosting sites are usually located at least two kilometers away from any potential nesting areas for protection against predators.

Long-eared owls are known to have high site fidelity which means they tend to return to the same location each year if conditions permit it.

As human development continues to encroach upon natural habitats however, these birds must adapt by finding new homes further away from urban centers. Conservation efforts should prioritize preserving existing nesting sites so that populations can continue thriving into future generations despite changing environmental conditions.

Diet And Hunting Behavior

Long-eared owls have an impressive hunting repertoire. They feed primarily on small mammals such as voles, mice and shrews. Additionally, they prey upon smaller birds, amphibians and insects.

These nocturnal hunters use their powerful talons to capture their prey in flight or while perched atop branches of trees. Long-eared owls also hunt by using a ‘sit and wait’ technique that capitalizes on the camouflage provided by its plumage. This strategy involves perching near rodent burrows and waiting patiently for unsuspecting prey to appear.

The long-eared owl’s eyes are adapted for night vision which allows them to see during low light conditions when most other animals are blind. Similarly, their ears are sensitive to sound waves traveling through air; this adaptation helps them locate their prey more easily at night.

Long-eared owls will often fly silently between tree branches with wings held close together in order to minimize noise disturbance while searching for food sources.

In addition to these adaptations, the species has developed specialized vocalizations that help it communicate with potential mates and find suitable territories. A range of calls can be heard from long-eared owls including hoots, whistles, chirps and trills as well as a sharp alarm call made in response to perceived danger.

By understanding how predators like the long-eared owl search for food and interact socially we gain valuable insight into how best to protect both the bird itself and its environment contextually.

Breeding Habits

The long-eared owl breeds from late winter through to early summer. They generally breed in open woodlands, pastures and marshes throughout their range. During the breeding season they display courtship behavior such as chasing each other while flapping wings, or by bobbing up and down with tail feathers spread out wide when perched on a branch.

The female usually selects the nesting site which is typically placed in a tree cavity or abandoned nest of another species, such as a crow or hawk. Clutch size ranges from 4 to 8 eggs per nest. Incubation takes approximately 28 days before hatching occurs, whereupon both parents feed the chicks until they fledge at around 38 days old.

Mortality rates are highest during the first year due to predation but surviving owlets may remain close to their natal area for up to one year after fledging. This suggests that there is some degree of philopatry among this species of owl; however further research is needed in order to confirm this hypothesis and gain an understanding of how it influences population dynamics within different areas.

Conservation Status

The long-eared owl is of conservation concern due to its endangered species status. The decline in the population has been linked with habitat loss and fragmentation, illegal hunting, persecution by humans, and predation by cats. Conservation efforts have focused on protecting nesting sites and providing suitable habitats for this species.

As well as establishing captive breeding programs, research has been conducted into determining the most effective methods of reintroducing the species back into their natural environment.

Various organizations such as BirdLife International are working hard to ensure that adequate measures are taken for the protection of this bird’s future. These organizations work closely with local communities to raise awareness about owl conservation and promote sustainable land use practices which benefit both wildlife and people alike.

Additionally, initiatives such as nature reserves provide a safe haven for these birds where they can breed without fear of human interference or destruction of their habitat.

In order to further protect the long-eared owl from extinction it is important that all stakeholders collaborate in creating an action plan which addresses threats related to poaching, deforestation, and climate change.

Research should be undertaken to identify key areas where populations need support and protection so that effective conservation strategies can be put in place. Ultimately, through collaborative effort between governments, non-profits, researchers, landowners and other interested parties we can safeguard not just the long-eared owl but also our own planet’s biodiversity as a whole.

Long-eared owl

Interaction With Humans

Owls are often a source of conflict between humans and wildlife. The long-eared owl is no exception, as it has been known to cause substantial disruption in rural areas where it is most commonly found.

Human-owl interaction can be either beneficial or detrimental depending on the circumstances. In instances when owls have caused damage to property or crops, some landowners have taken drastic steps such as shooting or trapping them. Such actions result in negative impacts on both populations of owls and local human communities.

In recent years, there has been an increasingly collaborative attitude towards owl-human relations. This change in mindset is largely driven by conservationists who advocate for coexistence rather than outright eradication of certain species.

In order to mitigate potential conflicts between humans and owls, efforts must be made to promote better understanding among people about these birds’ natural behaviors and habitats. By providing information about how people can safely share their environment with long-eared owls, land use managers can help increase tolerance for this bird species and reduce the likelihood of violence against them.

Overall, the best way forward for successful owl-human cohabitation lies in increased education around environmental protection measures that protect both humankind and wildlife alike. It is up to us all to ensure that we take responsibility for our own actions so that future generations may benefit from a more harmonious relationship between humans and nature’s creatures like the long-eared owl.


The long-eared owl is an impressive species that has adapted to a wide variety of habitats. This adaptation and its remarkable hunting abilities have made it one of the most widespread owl species in the world. Its diet consists mostly of small mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and some insects.

It hunts by perch-and-pounce technique or flying low through open areas while listening for potential prey beneath them. Breeding habits vary between different populations but typically involve nest sites being defended fiercely against intruders.

The conservation status of this species can be considered as secure due to its large distribution range and relatively stable population size throughout much of its range. However, there are still threats facing this species such as habitat loss, disturbance from humans and collisions with man-made structures like wind turbines which could lead to a decline in their numbers if not addressed properly.

Overall, the long-eared owl has many fascinating characteristics making it an important part of our ecosystems which should be taken into account when considering human activity within its natural habitats. Long-term conservation efforts are needed in order to ensure that future generations will continue to benefit from this incredible creature’s presence on our planet.